Sports injuries are injuries that occur to athletes & participating in sporting events.
In many cases, these types of injuries are due to overuse of a part of the body when
participating in a certain activity. For example, runner's knee is a painful condition
generally associated with running, while tennis elbow is a form of repetitive stress
injury at the elbow, although it does not often occur with tennis players. Other types
of injuries can be caused by a hard contact with something. This can often cause a
broken bone or torn ligament or tendon.
Injuries are a common occurrence in professional sports and most teams have a staff of Athletic Trainers and close connections to the medical community.
Signs & Symptoms
Inflammation is characterized by pain, localized swelling, heat, redness and a loss of function.
Dr. Anshu Sachadev offers following surgeries & treatment associates with sport injury:
Arthroscopy (also called arthroscopic surgery) is a minimally invasive surgical procedure in which an examination and sometimes treatment of damage of the interior of a joint is performed using an arthroscope, a type of endoscope that is inserted into the joint through a small incision. Arthroscopic procedures are performed either to evaluate or to treat many orthopaedic conditions including torn floating cartilage, torn surface cartilage, ACL reconstruction, and trimming damaged cartilage.
The advantage of arthroscopy over traditional open surgery is that the joint does not have to be opened up fully. Instead, for knee arthroscopy for example, only two small incisions are made - one for the arthroscope and one for the surgical instruments to be used in the knee cavity to fully remove the knee cap . This reduces recovery time and may increase the rate of surgical success due to less trauma to the connective tissue. It is especially useful for professional athletes, who frequently injure knee joints and require fast healing time. There is also less scarring, because of the smaller incisions. Irrigation fluid is used to distend the joint and make a surgical space. Sometimes this fluid leaks into the surrounding soft tissue causing extravasation and edema.
The surgical instruments used are smaller than traditional instruments. Surgeons view the joint area on a video monitor, and can diagnose and repair torn joint tissue, such as ligaments and menisci or cartilage.
It is technically possible to do an arthroscopic examination of almost every joint in the human body. The joints that are most commonly examined and treated by arthroscopy are the knee, shoulder, elbow, wrist, ankle, foot, and hip.
+ Knee Ligament Injuries (ACL / PCL reconstruction)
- Anterior cruciate ligament injury
ACL is the most commonly injured ligament of the knee. The injury is common during sports.
Twisting of the knee is a common cause of over-stretching or tearing the ACL. When the
ACL is injured one may hear a popping sound and the leg may suddenly give out. Besides
swelling and pain, walking may be painful and the knee will feel unstable. Minor tears
of the anterior cruciate ligament may heal over time, but a torn ACL requires surgery.
After surgery, recovery is prolonged and low impact exercises are recommended to
strengthen the joint.
- Posterior cruciate ligament
The posterior cruciate ligament (or PCL) is one of the four major ligaments of the knee.
It connects the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia to the medial condyle of the
femur. This configuration allows the PCL to resist forces pushing the tibia posteriorly
relative to the femur.The PCL does not heal on its own, so surgery is usually required
in complete tears of the ligament. Surgery usually takes place after a few weeks, in
order to allow swelling to decrease and regular motion to return to the knee. A procedure
called ligament reconstruction is used to replace the torn PCL with a new ligament,
which is usually a graft taken from the hamstring or Achilles tendon from a host cadaver.
An arthroscope allows a complete evaluation of the entire knee joint, including the knee
cap (patella), the cartilage surfaces, the meniscus, the ligaments (ACL & PCL), and the
joint lining. Then, the new ligament is attached to the bone of the thigh and lower leg
with screws to hold it in place.
In sports and orthopedics, a tear of a meniscus is a rupturing of one or more of the
fibrocartilage strips in the knee called menisci. Menisci can be torn during innocuous
activities such as walking or squatting. They can also be torn by traumatic force
encountered in sports or other forms of physical exertion. The traumatic action is most
often a twisting movement at the knee while the leg is bent. In older adults,
the meniscus can be damaged following prolonged 'wear and tear'. This is called a
degenerative tear.Tears can lead to pain and/or swelling of the knee joint. Especially
acute injuries (typically in younger, more active patients) can lead to displaced tears
which can cause mechanical symptoms such as clicking, catching, or locking during motion
of the knee joint. The joint will be in pain when in use, but when there is no load,
the pain goes away.A tear of the medial meniscus can occur as part of the unhappy triad,
together with a tear of the anterior cruciate ligament and medial collateral ligament.
Signs & Symptoms
The patient's chief complaints are usually knee pain and swelling. These are worse when
the knee bears more weight (for example, when running). Another typical complaint is
joint locking, when the patient is unable to fully straighten the leg. This can be
accompanied by a clicking feeling. Sometimes, a meniscal tear also causes a sensation
that the knee gives way.The patient can sometimes remember a specific activity during
which the injury was sustained. A tear of the meniscus commonly follows a trauma which
involves rotation of the knee while it was slightly bent. These maneuvers also excite
the pain after the injury; for example, getting out of a car is often reported as
+ Shoulder Injuries (Rotator Cuff Injuries)
The rotator cuff or rotor cuff is the group of muscles and their tendons that act to
stabilize the shoulder. The four muscles of the rotator cuff, along with the teres
major and the deltoid, make up the six scapulohumeral (those that connect to the
humerus and scapula and act on the glenohumeral joint) muscles of the human body.
Rotator cuff tears are tears of one or more of the four tendons of the rotator cuff
muscles. A rotator cuff injury can include any type of irritation or damage to the
rotator cuff muscles or tendons. Rotator cuff tears are among the most common
conditions affecting the shoulder. The tendons of the rotator cuff, not the muscles,
are most commonly torn. Of the four tendons, the supraspinatus is most frequently
torn as it passes below the acromion; the tear usually occurs at its point of insertion
onto the humeral head at the greater tuberosity.Patients suspected of having a rotator
cuff tear are divided into two treatment groups initially: Each patient is initially
a candidate for either operative or non-operative treatment, however patients are
re-evaluated throughout the course of treatment and may move from one group to the
other based on their clinical response and findings on repeated examination.Since
many patients with partial tears and some even with complete tears can respond to
non-operative management, generally conservative care is offered first. If a significant
trauma such as a shoulder dislocation, or fracture, or high energy force is known to
have been followed by complete to near complete loss of rotator cuff- mediated motion
and strength, then an operative work-up is initiated with plans to proceed to surgery
for repair, if confirmatory.Depending on the patients status there can be non-operative treatment or invasive treatment.
+Physiotherapy & Rehabilitation